Appendix: Composition of Commercial Acids and Bases

Composition of Commercial Acids and Bases
Acid or Base1Density (g/mL)2Percentage by Massmol / L
acetic acid, glacial1.0599.5%17.4
aqueous ammonia30.9028%14.8
hydrochloric acid1.1836%11.6
nitric acid1.4271%16.0
perchloric acid1.6770%11.65
phosphoric acid1.7085%14.7
sodium hydroxide1.5350%19.1
sulfuric acid1.8496%18.0


  • 1 Acids and bases are commercially available as aqueous solutions. This table lists properties (densities and concentrations) of common acid and base solutions. Nominal values are provided in cases where the manufacturer cites a range of concentrations and densities.
  • 2 This column contains specific gravity data. In the case of this table, specific gravity is the ratio of density of a substance to the density of pure water at the same conditions. Specific gravity is often cited on commercial labels.
  • 3 This solution is sometimes called “ammonium hydroxide,” although this term is not chemically accurate.