Practice Questions: Types of Matter

Chemistry End of Chapter Exercises

Why is an object’s mass, rather than its weight, used to indicate the amount of matter it contains?

What properties distinguish solids from liquids? Liquids from gases? Solids from gases?


Liquids can change their shape (flow); solids can’t. Gases can undergo large volume changes as pressure changes; liquids do not. Gases flow and change volume; solids do not.

How does a heterogeneous mixture differ from a homogeneous mixture? How are they similar?

How does a homogeneous mixture differ from a pure substance? How are they similar?


The mixture can have a variety of compositions; a pure substance has a definite composition. Both have the same composition from point to point.

How does an element differ from a compound? How are they similar?

How do molecules of elements and molecules of compounds differ? In what ways are they similar?


Molecules of elements contain only one type of atom; molecules of compounds contain two or more types of atoms. They are similar in that both are comprised of two or more atoms chemically bonded together.

How does an atom differ from a molecule? In what ways are they similar?

Many of the items you purchase are mixtures of pure compounds. Select three of these commercial products and prepare a list of the ingredients that are pure compounds.


Answers will vary. Sample answer: Gatorade contains water, sugar, dextrose, citric acid, salt, sodium chloride, monopotassium phosphate, and sucrose acetate isobutyrate.

Classify each of the following as an element, a compound, or a mixture:

(a) copper

(b) water

(c) nitrogen

(d) sulfur

(e) air

(f) sucrose

(g) a substance composed of molecules each of which contains two iodine atoms

(h) gasoline

Classify each of the following as an element, a compound, or a mixture:

(a) iron

(b) oxygen

(c) mercury oxide

(d) pancake syrup

(e) carbon dioxide

(f) a substance composed of molecules each of which contains one hydrogen atom and one chlorine atom

(g) baking soda

(h) baking powder


(a) element; (b) element; (c) compound; (d) mixture; (e) compound; (f) compound; (g) compound; (h) mixture

A sulfur atom and a sulfur molecule are not identical. What is the difference?

How are the molecules in oxygen gas, the molecules in hydrogen gas, and water molecules similar? How do they differ?


In each case, a molecule consists of two or more combined atoms. They differ in that the types of atoms change from one substance to the next.

Why are astronauts in space said to be “weightless,” but not “massless”?

Prepare a list of the principal chemicals consumed and produced during the operation of an automobile.


Gasoline (a mixture of compounds), oxygen, and to a lesser extent, nitrogen are consumed. Carbon dioxide and water are the principal products. Carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides are produced in lesser amounts.

Matter is everywhere around us. Make a list by name of fifteen different kinds of matter that you encounter every day. Your list should include (and label at least one example of each) the following: a solid, a liquid, a gas, an element, a compound, a homogenous mixture, a heterogeneous mixture, and a pure substance.

When elemental iron corrodes it combines with oxygen in the air to ultimately form red brown iron(III) oxide called rust. (a) If a shiny iron nail with an initial mass of 23.2 g is weighed after being coated in a layer of rust, would you expect the mass to have increased, decreased, or remained the same? Explain. (b) If the mass of the iron nail increases to 24.1 g, what mass of oxygen combined with the iron?


(a) Increased as it would have combined with oxygen in the air thus increasing the amount of matter and therefore the mass. (b) 0.9 g

As stated in the text, convincing examples that demonstrate the law of conservation of matter outside of the laboratory are few and far between. Indicate whether the mass would increase, decrease, or stay the same for the following scenarios where chemical reactions take place:

(a) Exactly one pound of bread dough is placed in a baking tin. The dough is cooked in an oven at 350 °F releasing a wonderful aroma of freshly baked bread during the cooking process. Is the mass of the baked loaf less than, greater than, or the same as the one pound of original dough? Explain.

(b) When magnesium burns in air a white flaky ash of magnesium oxide is produced. Is the mass of magnesium oxide less than, greater than, or the same as the original piece of magnesium? Explain.

(c) Antoine Lavoisier, the French scientist credited with first stating the law of conservation of matter, heated a mixture of tin and air in a sealed flask to produce tin oxide. Did the mass of the sealed flask and contents decrease, increase, or remain the same after the heating?

Yeast converts glucose to ethanol and carbon dioxide during anaerobic fermentation as depicted in the simple chemical equation here:

glucose⟶ethanol+carbon dioxideglucose⟶ethanol+carbon dioxide

(a) If 200.0 g of glucose is fully converted, what will be the total mass of ethanol and carbon dioxide produced?

(b) If the fermentation is carried out in an open container, would you expect the mass of the container and contents after fermentation to be less than, greater than, or the same as the mass of the container and contents before fermentation? Explain.

(c) If 97.7 g of carbon dioxide is produced, what mass of ethanol is produced?


(a) 200.0 g; (b) The mass of the container and contents would decrease as carbon dioxide is a gaseous product and would leave the container. (c) 102.3 g